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Azerbaijan Geography

Azerbaijan is located in southeastern Europe/southwestern Asia between Armenia and the Caspian Sea. Comparatively, Azerbaijan is slightly smaller than the state of Maine with a total area of 86,600 sq km (33,400 sq mi). This area includes the Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic and the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast. Azerbaijan shares boundaries with Russia on the north, the Caspian Sea on the east, Iran on the south, Armenia on the west, and Georgia on the northwest. Azerbaijan's boundary length totals 2,013 km (1,251 mi).

Azerbaijan's capital city, Baku, is located on the Apsheron Peninsula that juts into the Caspian Sea.

The topography of Azerbaijan features the large, flat Kura-Aras Lowland (much of it below sea level) surrounded on three sides by mountains. The Great Caucasus Mountains are to the north, the Lesser Caucasus Mountains are to the southwest, and the Talish Mountains are in the south along the border with Iran. The Karabakh Upland lies in the west. About 19% of Azerbaijan's land is arable with approximately 16% under irrigation.

The Nakhichevan exclave lies to the west, separated from the rest of Azerbaijan by Armenia. Nakhichevan also shares borders with Turkey and Iran.

The country's climate is subtropical in the eastern and central parts. In the mountainous regions the climate is alpine-like. The southeastern section of the country has a humid subtropical climate. The average temperature in the capital, Baku, in July is 25°C (77°F). In January the average temperature is 4°C (39°F). Rainfall varies according to climate zones. The average rainfall for most of the country is only about 15 to 25 cm (6 to 10 in). However, at the highest elevations of the Caucasus and in the Länkäran lowlands, annual rainfal can exceed 100 cm (39 in).


Southwestern Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and Russia, with a small European portion north of the Caucasus range

Geographic coordinates
40 30 N, 47 30 E

Map references
Middle East

total: 86,600 sq km
land: 82,629 sq km
water: 3,971 sq km
note: includes the exclave of Naxcivan Autonomous Republic and the Nagorno-Karabakh region; the region's autonomy was abolished by Azerbaijani Supreme Soviet on 26 November 1991

Area - comparative
slightly smaller than Maine

Land boundaries
total: 2,013 km
border countries: Armenia (with Azerbaijan-proper) 566 km, Armenia (with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave) 221 km, Georgia 322 km, Iran (with Azerbaijan-proper) 432 km, Iran (with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave) 179 km, Russia 284 km, Turkey 9 km

0 km (landlocked); note - Azerbaijan borders the Caspian Sea (713 km)

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